Thanks, Wallace Dear Wallace, This is a tricky question, but we can help! Rather, APA recommends that sources be reliable, primary accounts that represent the most up-to-date information wherever possible. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice. If the website or webpage truly does not have an author, substitute the title of the page for the author in the in-text citation and reference list entry see this post on missing reference pieces for examples of how to do this. List the secondary source in your reference list and include the secondary source in the parentheses. When an electronic document has numbered paragraphs, use the abbreviation "para. But how do I write an in-text citation for content I found on a website? Some fields develop faster than others, and even within a field, some information will remain relevant for a long time, whereas other information will become outdated. Posted by Chelsea Lee at In the References list at the end of your assignment, only cite the source by Holden et al. And, as Chris Messina, who introduced the idea to Twitter, has said, "it's left nerd-dom and now it's out there in the world. The copyright date on the website itself should not be used as the publication date for particular content on that site. For example, an article written by a researcher and published in a peer-reviewed journal is likely to contain reliable information and thus would make a good source. Work with SIX or more authors For all in-text citations, use the first author's name followed by et al. Multiple reference list entries:
The URL goes in the corresponding reference list entry and yes, you can leave the links live. There is no year-related cutoff where sources must be published within the past x number of years to be used in a paper. Moreover, the CMA warned that such assumptions may lead to the return of childhood illnesses like the measles , pp. Sources Without Page Numbers When an electronic source lacks page numbers, you should try to include information that will help readers find the passage being cited. Name of Organization or Group. Citing Indirect Sources If you use a source that was cited in another source, name the original source in your signal phrase. And there are no limits on the age of sources. Electronic Sources If possible, cite an electronic document the same as any other document by using the author-date style. Put references with no date before references with dates, and put in-press references last. Never use the page numbers of webpages you print out; different computers print webpages with different pagination. If you have further questions about choosing sources for an APA Style paper, leave a comment below. Reliable Sources A reliable source is one you can trust. This post is about how to talk about the hashtags themselves. APA recommends citing primary sources whenever possible, because this allows you to verify the accuracy and completeness of the information yourself rather than rely on someone else to do this for you. According to the American Psychological Association , However, if the site says it was first published in and last reviewed in July , then use the date because a review does not imply that any information was changed. Research by Wegener and Petty supports For example, an article written by a researcher and published in a peer-reviewed journal is likely to contain reliable information and thus would make a good source. Secondary sources can be reliable, but it is a best practice of scholarly writing to investigate for yourself if you can. Cite in-text as a personal communication; include initials and last name of the person s and the full date. McGill, personal communication, October 12, It is common for writers to have multiple entries with the same author and year , so to differentiate these entries, use a letter after the year e. Luckily, writing the in-text citation for a website or webpage is easy: All of these examples are correct: The short answer is that in most cases no, you do not put the URL in the text of the paper. If there is no author and no date, the website is likely unreliable and inaccurate. If the work does not have an author, cite the source by its title in the signal phrase or use the first word or two in the parentheses.
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