Most people are not aware of the many processes that take place in lava before it erupts and as it solidifies, processes that can have a tremendous influence on daughter to parent ratios. They are not calibrated by fossils. Please note, these were not MY ideas but the statements of a convinced, tenured, evolutionary geologist who apparently really wanted to beleive in the credibility of radiometric dating. Although these minerals crystallize in the order shown, this sequence is not a true reaction series. One would assume that initially, the concentration of N and D in different locations are proportional, since their chemical properties are very similar. The upper portion of the sialic magma would be cooler since its in contact with continental rock, and the high melting point of UO sub 2 uranium dioxide, the common form in granite: Akridge , Armstrong , Arndts , Brown , , Helmick and Baumann all discuss this factor in detail. Bowen also demonstrated that if a mineral remained in the melt after it had crystallized, it would react with the remaining melt and produce the next mineral in the sequence shown in Figure 3. This can result in dates being inherited from magma into minerals. How they correlate with the expected ages of their geologic period is an interesting question.
On the upper left branch of this reaction series, olivine, the first mineral to form, Ml] react with the remaining melt to become pyroxene. He says that there is one process that has been overlooked in all these isochron analyses: To produce isochrons having a variable N p , a mixing of three sources would suffice. Most likely, that is the least important source of error. Sr diffuses more quickly than Sr, and that has never been taken into account when isochrons are analyzed. If this is so, the magma would initially be poor in thorium and uranium and rich in lead, and as it cooled it would become rich in thorium and uranium and poor in lead. How is this excess of radium being produced? Scientists have also performed very exacting experiments to detect any change in the constants or laws of physics over time, but various lines of evidence indicate that these laws have been in force, essentially the same as we observe them today, over the multi-billion-year age of the universe. It doesn't say which class lead is in. It doesn't matter if these minerals are relatively lighter than others. Helens erupted, new rock was formed which, when tested in , yielded a radiometric age of , years. This chemical fractionation will most likely arise by some minerals incorporating more or less uranium or thorium relative to lead. If it is true that these dating methods are inaccurate, which the evidence seems to suggest, then we have cause to doubt much of the secular story regarding earth history and life on earth—the story being taught by a vast majority of institutions in the United States. Perfect crystals are very rare. Most people are not aware of the many processes that take place in lava before it erupts and as it solidifies, processes that can have a tremendous influence on daughter to parent ratios. What has to happen next to get an isochron is that the uranium or thorium has to concentrate relative to the lead isotopes, more in some places than others. We find places on the North Rim where volcanoes erupted after the Canyon was formed, sending lavas cascading over the walls and down into the Canyon. If there is a proof that this could not be so, then I have missed it. Anomalies As noted above, creationists make great hay out of "anomalies" in radiometric dating. I did see in one reference the statement that some parent-to-daughter ratio yielded more accurate dates than isochrons. For this reason, this arrangement of minerals became known as Bowen's reaction series. The half life of U is 4. Uranium is believed to be able to incorporate itself as a trace material in many other minerals of low density, and so be relatively highly concentrated in the crust. But there is no way to measure how much parent element was originally there. Many of the above authors attempt to explain these "fictitious" ages by resorting to the mixing of several sources of magma containing different amounts of Rb, Sr, and Sr immediately before the formation hardens.
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