For creationists to destroy the old-Earth theory, they must destroy the credibility of radiometric dating. As mentioned in the Uranium-Lead section, uranium does not decay immediately to a stable isotope, but decays through a number of shorter-lived radioisotopes until it ends up as lead. The constancy of radioactive decay rates follows from quantum mechanics, which has also passed every test physicists can create. Growth ring patterns based on wet and dry years can be correlated between living and long dead trees, extending the continuous ring count back to 11, years ago. It has to be -- the two sides of the equation must balance. These variations are called isotopes of that element. Sr87 ratio is exactly matched by the gain of Sr87 in the strontium-isotope ratio. If you ever wondered why nuclear tests are now performed underground, this is why. The EarthSky team has a blast bringing you daily updates on your cosmos and world. And their radiometric dates match as well. One could consider that time itself was changing if that happened remember that our clocks are now standardized to atomic clocks! When we look at a star in the Andromeda Galaxy, 2,, light-years away, we're seeing that star as it was 2,, years ago. Because God's universe is so large, images from distant events take a long time to get to us. In all these cases, the radiometric date agrees substantially with the date derived from extrapolation of plate motion. Thus, as living things take in carbon, they inevitably will take up a small amount of radioactive carbon into their bodies. How do scientists actually know these ages?
Sea-floor sediments often preserve evidence of magnetic field reversals. It only differs in degree. And when Early Devonian rocks are dated radiometrically, we get dates of roughly million years. In some lakes or bays where underwater sedimentation occurs at a relatively rapid rate, the sediments have seasonal patterns, so each year produces a distinct layer. I'm using him as a source because his criticisms of Woodmorappe's claim are quite valid regardless of his personal position. Several hundred thousand measurements are sometimes made for a single technique on a single ice core. It can be used on objects as old as about 62, years. Scientists are looking for the ratio of those two isotopes in a sample. After all, textbooks, media, and museums glibly present ages of millions of years as fact. The next step is to measure the amount of the parent and daughter isotopes in a sample of the rock unit. The cosmic rays produce small amounts of naturally-rare isotopes such as neon and helium-3, which can be measured in the laboratory. The unstable carbon gradually decays to carbon at a steady rate. Some of these isotopes are radioactive. Are any of those open to question. Sr87 ratio, and also in a change in the ratio of Sr87 to other isotopes of strontium. These agree with the ice flow models and the yearly layer counts. In cases where the dates don't agree, it's always been found that some natural factor was present which selectively affected one or the other dating method being used. Thus, as living things take in carbon, they inevitably will take up a small amount of radioactive carbon into their bodies. In every case where this has been done, the measured radiation intensity and the calculated half-life of the isotope from the supernova matches extremely well with measurements of that isotope made here on Earth. These cores are carefully brought back to the surface in sections, where they are catalogued, and taken to research laboratories under refrigeration. The chemistry of uranium and thorium are such that they are in fact easily removed from each other. These parent radioisotopes change into daughter lead, lead, argon, strontium, and neodymium isotopes, respectively. Cosmic ray exposure calibrations must take into page 19 account the elevation above sea level because the atmospheric shielding varies with elevation, and must also take into account latitude, as the magnetic shielding varies from the equator to the poles. Such sediment layers are called "varves", and are described in more detail below. Rubidium-Strontium Dating Yet a fourth method, rubidium-strontium dating, is even better than potassium-argon dating for old rocks. Why do snakes appear designed to kill?
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